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Sunday, June 17, 2018

June 17, 2018

Where to Get Yellow Fever Vaccination In Ghana

where to get yellow fever vaccination in Ghana

yellow fever vaccination in ghana

 List of Yellow Fever Countries by World Health Organisation - WHO

The World Health Organization lists the following countries as being at risk for yellow fever transmission:

Africa:- Angola, Benin, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Cote d’Ivoire, Democratic Republic of Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Gabon, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea Bissau, Kenya, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, United Republic of Tanzania, Togo and Uganda.

South America:- Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guyana, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela.

Reccomended reading: Best accommodation in Ghana
Since Ghana is one of the countries at risk of Yellow fever transmission, it is recommended for travelers coming from countries with no risk of Yellow Fever transmission  to have valid Yellow fever Vaccination Certificate or records indicating their protection against Yellow Fever.

Details on Yellow Fever Vaccination in Ghana for International Travel

  1. Vaccinations are carried out at one designated centre in each of the ten administrative regions by authorized competent health professionals. Details of designated vaccination centres are available at all Regional Health Directorates in each of the ten regional capitals.
  2. Vaccinations are also carried out at designated Points of Entry (PoE) by authorized competent health professionals for travelers with no valid Yellow Fever Vaccination Certificate.
  3. The vaccination certificates are signed by designated and authorized health officers at each of the designated centres (one in each administrative region and Points of Entry (PoE).
  4. One vaccination certificates obtained from the designated vaccination centres (one in each administrative region and Points of Entry (PoE).
  5. Only vaccination certificates obtained from the designated vaccination centres will be accepted as valid vaccination documents at Points of Entry. These have serial numbers and other security features. The table below shows where to get yellow fever vaccination in Ghana.

Read Also: Treasury Bill Rate In Ghana For 2019.

International Vaccination Centers, Ghana
Ashanti Kumasi Manhyia Hospital, Kumasi –
Near Otumfour's Palace
Brong-Ahafo Sunyani Regional Disease Control Unit
Near Ghana Broadcasting Cooperation
Central Cape coast Central Region Metro Health Directorate
Public Health Division
RCH Unit
Cape coast
Eastern Koforidua Regional Disease Control unit,
Koforidua - Galloway (Opposite Jubilee Park)
Greater Accra 1.       Accra
2.       Accra
3.       Tema

4.       Accra
1.       Adabraka Polyclinic
2.       KIA (Departure and arrival Hall)
3.       Port Health Unit Office
          Tema Port
4.       Akai House Labone
Northern Tamale Regional Health Directorate,
Public Health Unit, RCH.
Opposite Ghana water Company, Tamale
Upper East Bolgatanga Regional Hospital
Upper West Wa Regional Hospital
Volta 1.       Aflao

2.       Ho

1.       Port Health Unit Office
          Aflao Ground Crossing
2.       Regional Disease Control Unit
          (Sch. Of Hygiene Premises)
1.       Elubo

  2.       Takoradi

3.       Takoradi

1.       Port Health Unit Office
          Elubo Ground Crossing
2.       Port Health Unit Office
          Takoradi Port
3.       Regional Public Health Unit

Read also Information on Yellow Fever in Ghana

Saturday, June 16, 2018

June 16, 2018

Yellow Fever in Ghana - All The Information You Need To Know

Yellow Fever Outbreak in Ghana

On February 3, 2012, the WHO reports in its section "Global Alert and Response (GAR), an outbreak of yellow fever in three districts of Ghana (Builsa, Kassena-Western Nankana and South Kitampo), notified on December 20, 2011 by the Ministry of Health of Ghana. They reported three cases with fever and jaundice, two of them fatal. The index case was a 12-year-old boy who was visiting a family farm in the Western Kassena-Nankana district. This child died in the hospital on October 18, 2011, after having presented symptoms since October 11 of that year. No other cases were found. On February 6, 2012, a reactive vaccination campaign was initiated.

Yellow fever in Ghana

Accra, the capital of Ghana, is full of mixes between the Old and the New as a developing country would show. It is common to see people in traditional clothes while talking on cell phones. The coast of the country offers tropical climate as well as beautiful beaches. Even though there are many beaches to visit, it is important to know that the currents can be very strong, so it is recommended to be careful when you decide to swim. If your experiences are not aquatic, the Kakum National Park is a protected area with a great diversity of wildlife and vegetation including 300 species of birds. The park also offers a suspension bridge to take your visit to new heights.

Check with your Passport Health Traveler's Medical Specialist for personalized recommendations.
Many of the vaccines are recommended if you do not have an update of the basic vaccination scheme such as measles / mumps / rubella, whooping cough, diphtheria and tetanus, polio, etc. All the recommendations of vaccines as well as tips for a safe trip that are reflected in this site are general measures. The specific vaccination recommendations and medications may vary depending on personal factors, medical history, vaccination history and current outbreaks and health risks of the country you wish to visit, as well as activities within your itinerary. The information provided here is NOT intended to supplement the visit to one of the Passport Health Clinics, as the staff is highly qualified and is daily updated on the topics of Traveler's Medicine.

Ghana yellow fever requirement:

The requirements for the Yellow Fever Vaccine vary according to the regulations in your destination country. However, it is important to remember that regardless of the country of origin, if there is a sudden outbreak of Yellow Fever or if you have passed through an endemic area during your travels, you may be required to prove a document that proves that the user is vaccinated to cross the border of the country.


The official vaccination schedule should be updated. Other vaccines may be recommended, whose prescription should be done in a personalized way. It is advisable to carry out the vaccination a minimum of 4-6 weeks before traveling .

Mandatory vaccinations

None .
Travelers from yellow fever endemic areas may be required to obtain a certificate of vaccination. Generally the yellow fever vaccine is recommended to all travelers.

General Vaccinations for Ghana

(Recommended independently of making a trip) These include the following:
  • Tetanus
  • Diphtheria
  • Hepatitis B
  • Viral triple

Recommended Vaccinations in Ghana:

The recommended vaccinations as of that period include the following:
  • Yellow fever
  • Typhoid fever
  • Hepatitis A
  • Meningococcal meningitis (In risk groups)
  • Rabies (In risk groups)
  • Cholera (In risk groups)
  • Poliomyelitis (In risk groups)
  • Influenza (According to the special characteristics of the traveler)
  • Pneumococcus (According to the special characteristics of the traveler)

The average temperature in Ghana varies depending on the region you intend to visit, so we recommend reviewing the areas you plan to visit to pack suitable clothing as well as skin and eye protectors that can protect you from sudden and dangerous temperature changes in that country.

Thursday, June 14, 2018

June 14, 2018

If I Have Diabetes What Can I Eat - Diet for Diabetes

This Question keep appearing in my mail: If I have diabetes What can I eat?
In this post, we are going to show you what to do if you have diabetes.
The debut of diabetes is usually a difficult time and full of uncertainties, since in addition to psychological acceptance requires the change eating habits as well as lifestyle modification.
Diet for Diabetes
Diet for Diabetes

Diagnosis of diabetes is accompanied by new routines to obtain greater well-being and quality of life. The recommended diet for people with diabetes is not different from what the general population should follow, since it is about eating in a healthier way that is beneficial for health.

People with diabetes must maintain a balance between the food they eat, insulin, medications and physical exercise  to control glucose level.
We must know that diabetes is not like the communicable diseases which requires special management.

The aspects that must be taken into account to achieve an adequate control of diabetes are: maintaining a healthy diet and weight control. The adequate feeding guidelines depend on the conditions of each person, according to their weight, sex and physical activity.

Carbohydrates: Thus an energy source
Among all foods, the ones that generate the most doubts about their consumption are carbohydrates , which at the same time are the ones that most influence the glycemic values after meals.

However, an excessive amount of carbohydrates in the diet can cause too much blood glucose levels to rise. For this reason, the American Diabetes Association recommended a number of grams of carbohydrates consumed to set the maximum limit that can be ingested.

There are three main types of carbohydrates:

1. Starches
Foods with a higher starch content are:

Vegetables such as corn, beans, potatoes, etc.
Dried vegetables , lentils , peas and legumes of this type.
Grains such as oats , barley and rice due to their wheat flour composition.

2. Sugar
There are many types of sugar and some of them can be simple or fast-acting carbohydrates:

Natural sugars such as those that contain milk or fruit.
Sugars added during the preparation of food, such as syrup.

3. Fiber
Fiber is extracted from foods derived from plants and contributes to better digestive health.

Fruits and vegetables with edible skin (Apples)
Whole grains such as noodles, cereals and whole wheat bread.
Nuts : Nuts, peanuts, almonds, etc. They are very healthy as long as they are consumed in moderation and raw.
Foods with protein
There is a wide variety of foods that contain protein such as meat, soy products, cheese, etc. They are characterized by the amount of saturated fat  they contain.

The best alternatives of products with proteins, low caloric content and saturated fats are:

Dried vegetables and legumes
Legumes, peas and dry beans are a great source of protein and fiber, so the American Diabetes Association recommends including them several times a week in the diet. Among the great variety that make up this group of foods we can choose between: beans , lentils , dried peas and soy products that "imitate" meat as hamburgers.

Fish, seafood and meats
Among the most recommended fish and seafood are tuna, salmon, sardines, clams, lobsters, shrimp ... It is advisable to eat poultry such as chicken and turkey without skin . In the case of red meat or lean meat , it is preferable to buy it fresh cut and unprocessed, such as a hip steak or lean meat.

Foods such as egg whites, low-fat cottage cheese and tofu are also great sources of protein.

Nutritional recommendations for diabetes patients:

In the Diabetes Solutions library you can find informative resources and a brochure with everything you need to know about eating in people with diabetes. In it we find the following recommendations:

Eat several times a day. It is very important to start the day with a  healthy breakfast  and provide the necessary energy to face the day.
Restrict fast-absorbing sugars (fruit juices, sweets, pastries, etc.)
Consume foods with slow-absorbing carbohydrates , since they produce a smoother elevation of blood glucose. Among these carbohydrates are pulses, pasta, potatoes. It is also advisable to consume foods rich in fiber such as vegetables.
Reduce fat and limit foods of animal origin . It is important to remember that a diet high in fat may increase the risk of heart disease . The important thing is to find a balance, since a small amount of fats in each meal makes it more tasty and helps control hunger. Choose monounsaturated fats, such as olive oil and avocado.

  • Avoid excessive consumption of eggs.
  • Take into account the type of drinks that are ingested and if they are sweetened. In addition, the consumption of alcohol should be moderate .
  • Avoid cooking with butter or sunflower oil. It is preferable to use olive oil.

How can I improve my diet as a diabetic?

To improve eating habits, a  balanced diet with different types of foods must be followed in each meal.

They have to include moderate amounts of protein with low fat content.
Consuming vegetables and salads is an excellent option, since they help to satisfy the appetite, they are very nutritious and increase the blood glucose level very little. Keep in mind that it is very likely that the dressings that you add to the salad are not as nutritious as this one. People also keep asking: Is sweet potato good for diabetes? The answer is YES!

What can diabetics eat list?

People with diabetes can eat the following without any limitations
  • Beans
  • Sweet Potatoes:
  • Cinnamon
  • Salmon
  • Healthy fats
  • Avocado
  • Apple
  • Oats
  • Pasta (try whole wheat)
  • Dried Fruits
  • Seeds (sunflower, flax)
  • Unsalted Nuts

What foods should diabetics not eat?

It's important to avoid the foods listed below if you have diabetes: 
  • Roasted snack foods such as puff pastry, white rice and potatoes
  • Canned fruits, such as fig and peach in syrup, jams
  • Salty popcorn
  • Pork
  • sweets and jellies
  • Sweeteners with aspartame, such as Zero lime
  • Cottage cheese, cream cheese
  • Juices and diet soda
  • Greek Yogurt
  • Alcoholic drinks, processed juices and soft drinks
  • Sugar-Sweetened Beverages.
  • White Bread, Pasta and Rice. 
  • Sweetened Breakfast Cereals.
  • Flavored Coffee Drinks. 
  • Dried Fruit.

Can diabetic patients eat honey?

Do not forget that diabetes and honey are compatible only when there is control of the quality and quantity of use of this sweetness of the bee. Honey has the following sugars in its chemical composition:
Fructose: 40%
Sucrose: 5%
Glucose: 40%
The carbohydrates contained in this product are contraindicated in many of the diets that are prescribed for people with diabetes. Honey and diabetes can be "friends" but only under supervision. Monitor your health carefully and control your blood sugar levels in the early days of consumption of this natural sweetness.

Is Bananas good for diabetics?

Bananas rich in fibre and potassium. The fibre helps in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases as well as both the prevention and controlling obesity. For these two reasons among many others, bananas could be included in our list of fruits for diabetics.
It's just a misconception that for a long time we've been keeping the diabetics off the fruit. The truth is that bananas are absolutely safe for diabetics when they consume it in moderation and omit those too matured ones. Bananas are a healthy fruit, even for people with diabetes but, as the carbohydrate content and glycemic index of overripe bananas can cause significant spikes in blood sugar, many people end up believing that fruit consumption can aggravate their condition. However, consuming less than ripe bananas and even small portions throughout the day is really a good choice, since it does not affect a person's blood sugar level,

Can you eat chicken if you have diabetes?

The chicken plays an important role in the feeding of these patients, it is a health protective food due to the quantity and quality of nutrients provided, necessary in all stages of life.
In adult diabetics, the unsaturated fats present in chicken meat help protect heart health, a very important aspect of a food for these ages. This type of fats are necessary to prioritize in the case of diabetics with hypertension or high cholesterol. It supplies essential fats such as linoleic acid, essential for forming the components of cell membranes and the normal function of the skin.
Especially chicken thighs help fight diabetes, because they have a high zinc content. Do not forget to cook it without skin and roast or baked, it is not recommended to eat it fried.

What fruits diabetics should avoid?

  • Grapes
  • Cherries
  • Pineapple
  • Mango
  • Fruit juice
  • Dried fruit
  • Overripe Banana

which fruits are good for diabetes?

From the above discussion, almost fruits are good for diabetics depending on the quantity, nature and the type of the fruit the person is eating. It is very importnat to stay away from the overripe fruits.

Can you eat pizza if you have diabetes?

Pizza crust usually includes a crust made from white flour, a refined carbohydrate. To avoid causing sudden spikes in your blood sugar levels, limit the amount of pizza you eat at any given time. Order crispy pizza and opt for whole wheat pizza dough when available. Your choice of availability also proves important in the management of diabetes. Ask for a pizza with light cheese. It is also necessary to control your weight and cholesterol to control the symptoms of diabetes. If you want a meat topping, chicken makes a better choice than pepperoni. And if you add a lot of vegetables - tomatoes, broccoli, mushrooms, green peppers, Spinach - these complex carbohydrates will help balance the refined carbohydrates in the pizza dough. The glycemic index, a system that classifies foods based on their effect on blood sugar, provides a tool to keep your pizza as diabetes as possible. In conclusion, pizza and diabetes is not a bad idea.

What can Diabetics Eat for Breakfast?

In the mornings, you have to eat cereals with high fiber content, accompanied by fruit and skim milk, or you can consume natural yogurt, so it can provide calcium, protein, fiber and potassium to your body so is very important diabetes breakfast recipes contain that.
Fruits are one of the best foods to eat at a breakfast, among these the most indicated are berries. It is recommended that you consume protein-rich foods so that you can stay full longer.
Fruits or vegetables are excellent and you can add low-fat milk and cereals to them. You can also eat eggs, so you can start the day with enough energy, they are also a good source of animal protein.
Cheese consumption can provide you with good amounts of calcium and protein, which are essential for a good breakfast for diabetics.

Thursday, June 7, 2018

June 07, 2018

Yellow Fever Vaccination and The Cost Involved

 Yellow Fever Vaccination and The Cost Involved

Vaccination against yellow is one of the best means to protect against mamy contagious diseases but at what cost one should not underestimate. The cost of yellow fever vaccine has been an interesting topic for discussion since the World Health Organisation (WHO) is bent on eradicating the disease especially in Sub-sahara Africa.

Cost of yellow fever vaccine
Yellow fever vaccine costs
At birth, we have a natural immunity, which our mothers transmit to us through the placenta, these defenses help us to counteract certain diseases. Immunity is maintained while we are breast-fed. After this period it is necessary that we apply vaccines, which provides protection over the years. Vaccines make our body "remember" this acquired immunity, this is called immune memory. Note that there are side effects of vaccinations as well.

Which Countries Require Yellow Fever Vaccine?

There are countries that generally require a yellow fever vaccine and countries that only require them when traveling from a yellow fever endemic area. The proof must be provided by an international vaccination certificate. Yellow fever occurs in sub-Saharan Africa and tropical South America, where it is endemic and intermittently epidemic. List of countries where yellow fever is present is provided in the link and they fall under the yellow fever belt. Countries that require yellow fever vaccination for entry include:  Angola, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Congo, Republic of the, Côte d’Ivoire, Democratic Republic of Congo, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Niger, Sierra Leone, Togo, Uganda among other South America Countries.

The appointment with the tropical doctor

Since we need the yellow fever vaccine and we expect more "piercing surprises" on our trip, we have to arrange an appointment with a tropical doctor. We also need to inform him about other tropical diseases and precautionary measures.
After an initial consultation to determine that you need to be vaccinated, the health care provider will administer the shot and give you an official proof-of-vaccination document to take along on the trip. You must get the shot at least 10 days before your trip.

How Much Does The Yellow Fever Vaccine costs?

Vaccines for children under 5 years of age that are included in the expanded immunization plan do not generate costs when they are taken and must be universally applicable.
The costs of the yellow fever vaccine, including advice, at $70 per person is absolutely fine. However, we recommend in any case the request from your own health insurance. Some health insurance companies cover the costs or at least part of it. If you have already terminated your health insurance at that time of travel then your long-term health insurance  would have under no circumstances covered the costs.
How much does the yellow fever vaccine cost? On average, for those who are not covered by any health insurance, the total cost ranges from $ 150 to $ 350. For those covered by travel-related vaccines in health insurance, the entire process is likely to cost $10 to $40. So as you can see yellow fever vaccine cost without insurance is much more expensive.

1Is it necessary to pay

For those who are not covered by insurance, the normal costs for vaccination include a paid consultation, possibly a fee for administration shots, and the cost of the necessary dose of the vaccine itself. In particular, the amount you pay will vary depending on the medical facility you choose. For example, a vaccination clinic in Walgreens in the USA is almost $70, cheaper than a similar clinic in the UK or even in India. For those covered by health insurance, normal costs include a payment of about $25 for the doctor's visit, and sometimes payment for the cost of the vaccine. SO in effect the cost of vaccination againt yellow fever in Australia, UK Canada, India, USA, Kenya Costa Rica, South Africa, Uganda and other countries is totally different and depends on the Country or State in which you live.

Read about recipes for diabetics in Diet for Diabetes

2. Other costs of vaccination:

 As yellow fever is transmitted by mosquitoes, it is often recommended that, in addition to the vaccine, a mosquito repellent is also purchased when traveling to areas where there is a risk of yellow fever. A tube or bottle of insect repellent usually costs around $10. Make sure the DEET repellent is an active ingredient. These can be purchased at pharmacies, outdoor supply stores, as well as discount stores. It is also recommended to receive a booster dose at 10 years have passed since you received the vaccine.

How long does the vaccine last

According to the latest reports and information from our doctor, a vaccine must be taken only once in a lifetime. Previously, there was a rule that the vaccine must be renewed every 10 years. To what extent the countries visited also accept a vaccination that is older, we do not know. But I think 10 years are enough for now.

Sunday, May 27, 2018

May 27, 2018

Yellow fever Vaccination Adverse Effects You should be Aware of

Yellow Fever Vaccine Side Effects

The vaccine against yellow fever was discovered by Max Theiler, in 1937. He was awarded the prestigious Nobel Prize in Medicine. The cost of the yellow fever vaccine is nominal and has been in use since 1950. It contains the strain of yellow fever virus (reduced strength) called 17D. The 17D vaccine is economical and also safe.

Adverse Effects of Yellow fever Vaccination

Side effects of this vaccine

Immunization helps increase immunity against yellow fever within about seven days. Vaccination is essential for people working in tropical forest areas, or for people traveling to endemic areas of yellow fever. About 95% of people who receive the vaccine become immune to yellow fever after vaccination. There have been very few cases of serious side effects of the yellow fever vaccine. After vaccination, it is assumed that blood should not be donated for 14 days. Most people do not realize the side effects of the yellow fever vaccine.
Yellow fever Side effects of vaccines YF-Vax or yellow fever vaccine is an effective preventive measure taken to prevent the development of the disease in children and adults. For the vaccine to work, 9-month-olds will be exposed to small amounts of the virus, so the body develops immunity against it. Like all other vaccines, this vaccine does not in any way treat the disease, it just prevents it. In case one travels to an area where yellow fever is endemic, it is a must to be vaccinated 10 days before the arrival of the location. Although it is effective in the prevention of yellow fever, yellow fever-Vax has its own side effects. You should be well informed of these side effects in case medical attention is required.
The treatment of the yellow fever vaccine side effects is as important as its identification.

Slight side effects

About 25% of people who receive the yellow fever vaccine, suffer from mild to high fever, and a body ache. The redness and swelling in the area where the vaccine is placed is quite natural. These side effects disappear in a week.

Serious side effects

Around 0.0018% of people (a person of 55,000) can develop an allergic reaction to components of the vaccine, mainly an allergy to eggs. So, people who have been diagnosed with an allergy to eggs should consult with the doctor before vaccination. All components of the vaccine must be checked.

About a person of 125,000 (0.0008%) may suffer damage to the nervous system. Newborn babies, babies or those adults who have a weak immune system are very likely to suffer from a neurological disease that involves confusion, muscle weakness, paralysis, loss of sensation, or encephalitis (inflammation of the brain that leads to head pain, fever, fatigue, seizures, loss of memory, etc.)
About 1 person in 250,000 (0.0004%) may be the victim of an organ failure. Vaccination can be fatal for more than half of these victims. It should be noted, that such serious side effects have never been observed after a booster dose, which is administered every 10 years for those at risk. People belonging to the group of 60 years of age and above are more likely to suffer from organ failure after vaccination. So, they should be examined by a doctor before vaccination.
Sometimes, the symptoms of vaccination against yellow fever result in the vaccinated person. This condition is known as YEL-AVD. It is believed that certain genetic factors are responsible for the development of YEL-AVD symptoms. The development of YEL-AVD also depends on the ability of the virus in the vaccine to cause the disease.

 The Yellow Fever Signs and Symptoms as well as the Treatment is described in detail in this article.

Vaccination against yellow fever is mandatory to enter in some countries. Pregnant women, nursing mothers and babies should be exempt from vaccination against yellow fever. Children and adults who belong to the age group of 9 months to 59 years should be vaccinated, if they are traveling or living in endemic areas of yellow fever. Laboratory technicians who handle samples of blood or urine from patients diagnosed with yellow fever should also be vaccinated for the protection of their lives.
Remember, a vaccine is like a medicine. Each one takes the medications that come with the side effects. Some medications can cause serious or life-threatening side effects. Vaccination is the best way to avoid death from yellow fever and the chances of death due to the side effects of the yellow fever vaccine are extremely low. The best way is to check with your doctor as soon as you notice any symptoms. Be careful. Most people always ask How Much Does Yellow Fever Vaccine Cost?

                 A Video showing some of the side effects of yellow fever to make it easier to understand.

Yellow fever Side effects of vaccines YF-Vax or yellow fever vaccine is an effective preventive measure taken to prevent the development of the disease in children and adults. For the vaccine to work, 9-month-olds will be exposed to small amounts of the virus, so the body develops immunity against it. Like all other vaccines, this vaccine does not in any way treat the disease, it just prevents it. In case one travels to an area where yellow fever is endemic, it is a must to be vaccinated 10 days before the arrival of the location. 

Although it is effective in the prevention of yellow fever, yellow fever-Vax has its own side effects. You should be well informed of these side effects in case medical attention is required.
  • Allergic reaction

An allergic reaction should be transmitted to the health professional if you're going for a booster dose and monitor the side effects and their intensity during the 30 days after the injection. Signs of allergic reaction that require medical help include:
Pale skin Urticaria Difficult breathing Weakness Dizziness increased heart rate, facial Swelling of the lips, tongue and throat
  • Less serious side effects:

Less serious side effects of the yellow fever vaccine that occur 5-10 days after the vaccine include:
  1. Low-grade fever 
  2. Feeling of general malaise
  3. Mild headache
  4. Mild skin rashes
  5. Muscle pain
  6. Joint pain
  7. Body pain
  8. tenderness or swelling at the injection site
  • Call for immediate medical assistance

Side effects of the yellow fever vaccine can occur up to 30 days after the injection, to be alert and call the doctor immediately if you experience:
  1. Flu symptoms
  2. Neck or stiffness in the back
  3. Vomiting 
  4. Confusion 
  5. Memory loss 
  6. Irritability 
  7. Loss of balance and coordination 
  8. Sensitivity to light 
  9. Weakness or no pricky in the fingers and toes 
  10. Difficulty walking, breathing, speaking and seeing 
  11. Severe back pain 
  12. Loss of control of the bladder and bowel 
  13. Muscular weakness 
  14. Loss of movement in any part of the body, including the eyes Behavior changes Seizure blackouts

Monday, March 12, 2018

March 12, 2018

Lassa Fever: Causes, Symptoms & Vaccine



1. Overview

The Lassa fever is a notifiable disease and belongs as the Marburg fever to the viral haemorrhagic fevers.

2 . Definition of Lassa Fever

Lassa fever is a febrile viral disease that can lead to internal bleeding. Thus, it is a haemorrhagic infectious disease ( haemorrhagic = associated with internal bleeding).
The Lassa virus responsible for Lassa fever is not the only virus that can trigger a hemorrhagic fever . Other virus-related haemorrhagic fevers include:
  • yellow fever
  • Marburg virus infection
  • Dengue fever (or dengue hemorrhagic fever, DHF)
  • Ebola
All viral haemorrhagic fevers (including Lassa fever) are notifiable diseases .
Lassa fever and Ebola fever causes in Africa
Lassa fever and Ebola fever causes in Africa

The term Lassa fever is due to an international agreement stating that a hemorrhagic fever should be named after the site of its discovery. Lassa fever was discovered in 1969 in Lassa, Nigeria, where two American nurses from a mission station died of an unexplained fever disease, and a third sister, who showed signs of haemorrhagic fever, was taken to the United States. She survived the disease; the pathogen was identified as a previously unknown virus.

Frequency of occurrence

Lassa fever is estimated to occur at a rate of approximately 100,000 to 300,000 cases, predominantly in the tropical regions of West Africa. During the dry season from January to April, a seasonal accumulation is observed. In the US and in Europe, isolated cases occur.


The Lassa fever is caused by viruses. The complaints of Lassa fever are initially very unspecific. After an incubation period of about 3 - 21 days it can come to fever. In most cases (80%), the Lassa fever heals without major discomfort and leads only in a few cases to a life-threatening course of shock and organ failure. The disease "Lassa" is named after a city in northeastern Nigeria. There the disease was described in 1969 and the virus was detected for the first time. The Lassa fever is - especially for travelers - a very rare, but at the same time a very serious illness. Around 10 to 20% of inpatients die as a result of the virus infection. The incidence of Lassa fever has so far been reported from the following countries: Nigeria, Liberia,

Routes of infection

The infection with the Lassa fever is due to a lack of hygienic conditions. As causes, several infection routes are possible:
Transmission from animal to human: Causes of the Lassa fever may be infected rats, the Lassa virus indirectly (via virus-containing suspended matter in the air, which are caused by dried excreta such as urine or feces) or directly (via direct contact with blood and Excretion or consumption of contaminated food).
Transmission from person to person: Lassa fever can also be caused by infection in humans (via blood-containing suspended substances in the breathing air as well as through direct contact with blood, saliva, urine, semen, vomit or feces of acutely affected persons).

incubation period

In Lassa fever, the incubation period (ie the time from infection to the onset of the disease) can be 6 to 21 days. Mostly, however, it takes 7 to 12 days.

4 . Symptoms of Lassa Fever

The Lassa fever causes mostly (in 80% of cases) little or only mild symptoms. Internal bleeding, which is why Lassa fever is also called haemorrhagic fever ( haemorrhagic = with internal bleeding), occurs only in a part of the cases.
Typically, Lassa fever begins slowly as the fever increases , with symptoms similar to the onset of flu . In about half of those affected it comes to muscle pain and joint pain , usually in the lumbar spine. On the third to fourth day, a dry cough with severe sore throat occurs; on the almonds can form white or yellow coverings. Strong headaches develop; In addition, those affected feel chest pain.
In about two-thirds of cases, Lassa fever causes abdominal cramps associated with vomiting. In severe cases of viral disease, other symptoms may include conjunctivitis associated with internal bleeding (hemorrhagic conjunctivitis), and swelling of the face and neck, which may adversely affect the prognosis.
In about one in five affected Lassa fever leads to pericarditis (pericarditis). The blood pressure is usually low and the circulation can fail. Renal failure is also common. In complicated cases, encephalitis is possible. About one in four sufferers experience severe bleeding. These symptoms can be life threatening.

5 . Diagnosis

In Lassa fever, the diagnosis succeeds by detecting the pathogens or specific antibodies. Even at the first suspicion of infection with the Lassavirus, it is advisable to take blood samples to ensure a quick diagnosis
The viruses responsible for the Lassa fever are detectable in the blood, in the pharynx, in the urine or in tissue samples. The Lassa virus is grown in tissue cultures or in mouse or guinea pig babies. For several years, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has also been available for diagnosis in order to detect the virus. From the third day of the disease on Lassa fever specific immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G antibodies can be detected in the blood of those affected.

6 . Treatment of Lassa fever

In Lassa fever, therapy is primarily aimed at alleviating the symptoms. It is also important to provide sufficient fluids to those affected.
If Lassa virus is suspected, treatment with ribavirin is advisable in addition to symptomatic treatment. In order to inhibit the proliferation of viruses, those affected are best given the drug via the vein (intravenously). It is important that this treatment begins on the first six days of illness: Early treatment can lower the mortality rate (lethality) that is quite high in Lassa fever. By over the mouth (orally) administered drugs, the mortality decreases by a factor of three; when given intravenously, the mortality even falls by a factor of ten.

7 . Course of Development

The Lassa fever predominantly (80%) takes a smooth course. Internal bleeding, which is why Lassa fever is also called haemorrhagic fever ( haemorrhagic = with internal bleeding), develops only in a part of the cases.
Typically, Lassa fever sets in slowly, with the entire course lasting on average for 12 to 15 days (4 weeks maximum). In severe disease progression, the prognosis is difficult to assess. Whether those affected recover or die, usually decides between the second and third week of illness.

Complications of Lassa Fever

The Lassa fever may be associated with various complications in severe cases: For example, a brain inflammation (encephalitis) is possible, which can lead to damage to the eighth cranial nerve, which in turn produces a permanent numbness .


If the Lassa fever is severe, the then very high mortality (lethality) can be significantly reduced by early intravenous treatment with ribavirin. On average, hospital mortality is 15 percent. During pregnancy it is even higher: About half of all pregnant women die from Lassa fever; More than 80 percent of those affected lose their child.

8 . Prevention of Lassa Fever

The most effective way to prevent Lassa fever is to avoid contact with rats and people who are ill and to pay close attention to hygiene in the area around the virus. In order to prevent the spread of Lassa fever in the hospital, a strict isolation of those affected and a protective equipment for the medical personnel (gowns, gloves, mask and goggles) are necessary.
Diseased people are contagious, especially in the acute feverish phase. However, they excrete the Lassa virus responsible for the Lassa fever much longer: in the urine for 3 to 9 weeks after onset of the disease, in the seminal fluid even up to 3 months. Therefore, with Lassa fever sexual abstinence is also advisable for the prevention of contagion. There is no vaccine against Lassa fever. However, a once-through disease seems to protect against a renewed Lassa fever: Who survives the infection, although again infected with the Lassa virus, but not again fall ill.

Read about the Cost of Vaccination here!


Those affected by Lassa fever must be reported by name. Notifiable are the suspicion of Lassa fever and the present disease of Lassa fever, as well as the direct detection of the pathogen.

Thursday, March 8, 2018

March 08, 2018

CHICKEN POX (Vericella) - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment


Chicken Pox is a highly contagious viral disease with a variable onset (Benenson 1995).It is also called vermicelli and it by varicella zoster virus. Varicella is a herpes simplex virus (HSV) of the same type that causes shingles and children and adults. The disease causes itchy rash and blisters all over the body and it is common in children, but most people will get chickenpox at some point in their lives if they have not had the chickenpox vaccine. The rash progresses from erythematous rash to macular rash, then a papular and finally vesicular. Eventually the vesicle scab and crust. The rash can be at stage at different places on the body and generally begins on the head and spreads to the rest of the body. The person who has chickenpox can spread the virus even before he or she has any symptoms. Chickenpox is most easily spread from 2 to 3 days before the rash appears until all the blisters have crusted over.
Vericella Chichenpox
Vericella Chichenpox


Chickenpox is caused by a virus and this virus is transmitted through thus you can get it from an infected person who sneezes, coughs and also you can get it through direct contact if you touch the fluid from a chickenpox blister.


It both , most cases in children between 5 and 10 years


Varicella-zoster virus


The first symptoms of chickenpox are fever, a headache, and a sore throat. You and your child would have vesicular rash, malaise fatigue. The chickenpox rash usually appears about 1 or 2 days after the first symptoms start.


1. Acyclovir are used to treat the disease
2. Calamine lotion is used to reduce itching 2-3 times daily.
3. Acetaminophen are given for relieving fever and pain
4. Varicella-zoster immune globin are given to reduce the symptoms of the disease.
5. Antibiotics are used to prevent secondary bacterial infections.


1. Maintain isolation during the communicable stage
2. Encourage fluid intake for hydration
3. Prevent secondary skin infection by keeping fingernails cut, by keeping the skin clean and dry and by keeping bedclothes and linen clean and dry.
4. Children should be provided with activities to keep them occupied and distracted from scratching.
5. Provide skin care and comfort measures. Use calamine lotion to relieve itching
6. Remove loose crusts that rub and irritate skin
7. Observe an immune compromised patient for manifestations of complications such as pneumonia and report them immediately
8. Administer all prescribed drugs as ordered


Primary Prevention

  1. In hospital, cases of chicken pox should be isolated from other patients.
  2. People should be encouraged for the vaccination. (varivax)
  3. All cases must be carefully investigated for an outbreak of chicken pox.
  4. People should be educated to avoid over crowded places during an epidermic.

Secondary Prevention

  1. Give antibiotics only if lesions are infected.
  2. Apply calamine lotion 2-3 times daily.
  3. Cut finger nails to prevent scratching.
  4. Treat pain and fever with paracetamol syrup.
  5. Avoid aspirin in children because of risk of Reye’s syndrome

Tertiary Prevention

  1. Explain the nature of the disease and its prevention to the patient and significant orders.
  2. Parents must ensure that the child is not stigmatise since this could affect his psychosocial development.
    4. Ensure adequate ventilation
    5.  Encourage good nutrition (balance diet).
     6. Encourage caregivers to comply with treatment.

    7. Report signs of complications.
  1. Secondary bacterial infection such as abscesses and furuncle.
  2. Pneumonia
  3. Encephalitis.
  4. Hepatitis.
  5. Reye’s syndrome.
  6. Pnuemonia
  7. Meningitis.